India: Elections to largest democracy of the world

Statistics of elections in India

India the home of largest democracy in India is no small achievement. An ex Election Commissioner called it the unrecorded Wonder of World. While the following statistics can not fathom the mammoth exercise taken by Election Commission of India in conducting Elections in India. There are four tier institutions which are elected two office. At bottom is elections to Gaon Sabha or Village Committee, second is elections to Local Bodies or Municipal Committee/Corporations third is State Government in each of 29 States in India and finally the Union Federal Government which is called as Central Government. The last two elections are conduction by Election Commission of India which is an independent Constitutional Institution with guaranteed tenure in office. As state earlier the story as to  how these elections exercise is conducted is a vast subject but the result of the elections to the Central Government also reflect the statistics as to how different prominent parties fared in the 16 such elections which took place since independence.

Like England, India follows Westminster form of Parliamentary Government. The elections are conducted to elect members of Parliament to lower house called Lok Sabha (Peoples Council). The leader of the house is sworn as Prime Minister of India who with his cabinet, advises President of India, which advice is binding.

Following is a summary of the statistics of these elections, which is complied from various sources for some other work but it was a laborious exercise hence the same is shared here below.

Election in 1951

The election for 1st Lok Sabha was an arduous task and it took around four months, between October 25, 1951 to February 21, 1952. The Indian National Congress was the largest political party in India at that time. Jawaharlal Nehru, the President of Indian National Congress (INC) in his election campaigning, approached about one tenth of India’s population, or 35 million people, by covering about 40,000 km while at campaign trail. Continue reading

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84 Ancient Civilizations in the World

The cradles of Civilizations

Though all cradles did not fructify into large cities yet the effort was made by humans at various places.

The cities, as we know, came into being only 5000 years back i.e. around 3000 BCE, as far as our discovery of ancient cities is so far made. Small settlements with or without buried corpses of earlier time period show that human civilization existed for far longer period and only thereafter developed enough technology to build big cities.

Small settlements are mostly from stone age and the cities show signs of metallurgical knowledge which was called as copper age. The places where human settlements of stone age were found are called cradles of civilisation for here human civilisation was in nascent stage from which it grew up later to adolescence age or copper age.

It may be noted that there are 84 ancient settlements of civilisations are listed in Encyclopedia Britannica. These are:

Abbevillian industry:

700,00 years settlement discovered in old lower Somme valley, in a suburb of Abbeville, France, existed prehistoric stone tool tradition with bifacial (hand axe) technology.

Acheulean industry:

Continue reading

Human programming: Are we ready to accept it.

Human programming is a fact for me but I do not think that everybody in the world is ready to accept it. More so, a large majority of people may not even understand it.  To understand the meaning of a word it is interesting to how different languages express it. But before that, lets understand what programming means in respect of computer program. Interestingly  when Woogle translated  it in Hindi it came out as “कार्यक्रम निर्माण” which if re-translated in English would be expressed as “creation of work/program”. Interesting?

Computer programming

The world programming is actually used in respect of computers. A program when in operation is also referred as “Algo Rythm”. The process of writing a computer program is called coding as it entails writing a long lines of codes in computer programming language. BTW the most popular language is called “C” and it’s latest version is called as “C++”. For example the first program which is taught to a beginner is how to make computer to give output of “Hello World” on screen. An example of the code: Continue reading

Feudalism and democracy

The turning tide of Democracy in India

Feudalism is defined as “dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord’s land and give him homage, labour, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.”

And then came democracy, which in USA, was called ” Government by and of the people but also for the people”. But democracy is never considered most efficient way of governance but is chosed as it is least hostile to people.

But are we really there? I mean are we truly democratic? My guess is that democracy is a work in progress and there is always scope for improvement. Presently most countries are of indirect democracy which means that people select their representatives and it is presumed that actions of the representative is that of the people. The people can change the representative after a fixed  term but can not interfere with the actions of representative before the end of term. Continue reading