Independence Day Greetings

Greetings for 72nd Independence Day of India.

स्वतंत्रता दिवस की शुभकामनाय

 

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The India’s war of survival

The stupid Khalistan

Yesterday while Indians were celebrating Independence day in London, thousands of Sikhs protested outside in front of National Gallery situated near Trafalgar Square. There were seeking declaration of freedom of Punjab as an independent Khalistan. Demonstration was organised by Non-Indian Sikhs. Mostly those who had perhaps never even visited India. In response the Indians held their own demonstration singing nationalist songs, dances and of course waving of national flag, the Tricolour.

Has any one seen such a rally by Quebec, demanding independence fro Canada? Would London permit such rally at Trafalgar Square. Would Irish or Scots permitted to have such protest? I would seriously doubt it. Continue reading

India: Elections to largest democracy of the world

Statistics of elections in India

India the home of largest democracy in India is no small achievement. An ex Election Commissioner called it the unrecorded Wonder of World. While the following statistics can not fathom the mammoth exercise taken by Election Commission of India in conducting Elections in India. There are four tier institutions which are elected two office. At bottom is elections to Gaon Sabha or Village Committee, second is elections to Local Bodies or Municipal Committee/Corporations third is State Government in each of 29 States in India and finally the Union Federal Government which is called as Central Government. The last two elections are conduction by Election Commission of India which is an independent Constitutional Institution with guaranteed tenure in office. As state earlier the story as to  how these elections exercise is conducted is a vast subject but the result of the elections to the Central Government also reflect the statistics as to how different prominent parties fared in the 16 such elections which took place since independence.

Like England, India follows Westminster form of Parliamentary Government. The elections are conducted to elect members of Parliament to lower house called Lok Sabha (Peoples Council). The leader of the house is sworn as Prime Minister of India who with his cabinet, advises President of India, which advice is binding.

Following is a summary of the statistics of these elections, which is complied from various sources for some other work but it was a laborious exercise hence the same is shared here below.

Election in 1951

The election for 1st Lok Sabha was an arduous task and it took around four months, between October 25, 1951 to February 21, 1952. The Indian National Congress was the largest political party in India at that time. Jawaharlal Nehru, the President of Indian National Congress (INC) in his election campaigning, approached about one tenth of India’s population, or 35 million people, by covering about 40,000 km while at campaign trail. Continue reading

84 Ancient Civilizations in the World

The cradles of Civilizations

Though all cradles did not fructify into large cities yet the effort was made by humans at various places.

The cities, as we know, came into being only 5000 years back i.e. around 3000 BCE, as far as our discovery of ancient cities is so far made. Small settlements with or without buried corpses of earlier time period show that human civilization existed for far longer period and only thereafter developed enough technology to build big cities.

Small settlements are mostly from stone age and the cities show signs of metallurgical knowledge which was called as copper age. The places where human settlements of stone age were found are called cradles of civilisation for here human civilisation was in nascent stage from which it grew up later to adolescence age or copper age.

It may be noted that there are 84 ancient settlements of civilisations are listed in Encyclopedia Britannica. These are:

Abbevillian industry:

700,00 years settlement discovered in old lower Somme valley, in a suburb of Abbeville, France, existed prehistoric stone tool tradition with bifacial (hand axe) technology.

Acheulean industry:

Continue reading