Statistics of elections in India
India the home of largest democracy in India is no small achievement. An ex Election Commissioner called it the unrecorded Wonder of World. While the following statistics can not fathom the mammoth exercise taken by Election Commission of India in conducting Elections in India. There are four tier institutions which are elected two office. At bottom is elections to Gaon Sabha or Village Committee, second is elections to Local Bodies or Municipal Committee/Corporations third is State Government in each of 29 States in India and finally the Union Federal Government which is called as Central Government. The last two elections are conduction by Election Commission of India which is an independent Constitutional Institution with guaranteed tenure in office. As state earlier the story as to how these elections exercise is conducted is a vast subject but the result of the elections to the Central Government also reflect the statistics as to how different prominent parties fared in the 16 such elections which took place since independence.
Like England, India follows Westminster form of Parliamentary Government. The elections are conducted to elect members of Parliament to lower house called Lok Sabha (Peoples Council). The leader of the house is sworn as Prime Minister of India who with his cabinet, advises President of India, which advice is binding.
The result of the elections to the Central Government also reflect the statistics as to how different prominent parties fared in the 16 such elections which took place since independence. Following is a summary of the statistics of these elections, which is complied from various sources:
Election in 1951
The election for 1st Lok Sabha was an arduous task and it took around four months, between October 25, 1951 to February 21, 1952. The Indian National Congress was the largest political party in India at that time. Jawaharlal Nehru, the President of Indian National Congress (INC) in his election campaigning, approached about one tenth of India’s population, or 35 million people, by covering about 40,000 km while at campaign trail. Continue reading
The turning tide of Democracy in India
Feudalism is defined as “dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord’s land and give him homage, labour, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.”
And then came democracy, which in USA, was called ” Government by and of the people but also for the people”. But democracy is never considered most efficient way of governance but is chosed as it is least hostile to people.
But are we really there? I mean are we truly democratic? My guess is that democracy is a work in progress and there is always scope for improvement. Presently most countries are of indirect democracy which means that people select their representatives and it is presumed that actions of the representative is that of the people. The people can change the representative after a fixed term but can not interfere with the actions of representative before the end of term. Continue reading
Why Prime Minister Narendra Modi is ready to lose elections in 2019?
In the land of epic Mahabharata, if elections were held today, Narendra Modi will lose next Government in North India. The epic Mahabharata, besides many other actors, is a tale of a blind king namely Dhratrashtra who besides being optically blind is also in blind love for his son Duryodhan. He agrees to every demand of son and eventually there is final battle of Kurushetra in which the King loses all his sons as also the kingdom. This is the shortest version of it.
The problem with history is that no one learns from history. Those who do are tremendously at peace. Apparently PM Modi is not taking any cue from history.
Fifth budget of Arun Jaitley as Finance Minister:
Finance Minister of India announced the budget plans, last week. Interesting point was that he could not manage to curtail fiscal deficit. Another highlight is that this budget aims at pushing rural economy and healthcare. No candy has been provided to tax paying middle class by way of reduction in income tax unlike last year when many argue that the relief was academic.
The accounting of budget 2017-18 is here. As may be seen the revenue from non corporation income tax improved by over 20% and this buoyancy has perhaps led to the Government to ignore the long standing demand to simplify the Income Tax laws.
Income Tax in India:
Democrats shut down white house by denying passage to money bill.
This is response of President Donald Trump:
A similar shut down had happened in the past. Many years ago. Who did it then? I wonder. This morning I got a mail from a friend in USA to write about it from a ‘different universe’. I think the friend meant ‘from distant perspective’ but the truth is that we are in same boat. Yes. India and USA both democracies are facing similar problems. But about that a little bit later.
In political science it is settled that Monarchy is the best kind of governance because actions are swift and therefore efficient. Constitution of USA follows monarchical pattern but to keep the monarch in check it provides for what is called doctrine of separation of power. But the bipartisan democracy makes a mockery of the doctrine. What was ment to keep exercise of power in check is used as a leverage to bargain deals. Situation could be different if there were multiple parties. That makes bargaining easier. But in absence of that it ends up in a deadlock. This is exactly what happened. But it will resolve. When bullies fight negotiation happens after first round of fight. Not before that.
As regards similar situation, in India it must be noted that the ruling BJP is in minority in upper house. The most important Land Acquisition Amendment law and the triple Talaq matters are lying pending for want of consensus. The Government is in office for four years and only after April it can see some relief with retirement of members and re-election of new members to upper house. However inspite of this problem the Government could bring in many legislation like RERA and GST is certainly an achievement of diplomacy. Something entirely lacking in Trump.
The first thought which traveled to my mind on seeing the news of lock down in USA was that perhaps the doctrine of separation of power is wrong but then the fundamental principle of democracy is to proceed with consensus of at least majority and the word majority keeps changing every moment. Any how, inhuman decisions which lack compassion have consequences and backlash. Enforcement of law without and end to achive is not humane.
A clueless spokesperson of white house Heather Nauert, either has no clue about impact of lock down or did not share it publicly. See this press briefing of 18 January 2018, two days before it actually happened:
A similar development is happening in New Delhi. A Supreme Court enabled martial law is being imposed on people but that has to be accommodated in next article.