The cradles of Civilizations
Though all cradles did not fructify into large cities yet the effort was made by humans at various places.
The cities, as we know, came into being only 5000 years back i.e. around 3000 BCE, as far as our discovery of ancient cities is so far made. Small settlements with or without buried corpses of earlier time period show that human civilization existed for far longer period and only thereafter developed enough technology to build big cities.
Small settlements are mostly from stone age and the cities show signs of metallurgical knowledge which was called as copper age. The places where human settlements of stone age were found are called cradles of civilisation for here human civilisation was in nascent stage from which it grew up later to adolescence age or copper age.
It may be noted that there are 84 ancient settlements of civilisations are listed in Encyclopedia Britannica. These are:
700,00 years settlement discovered in old lower Somme valley, in a suburb of Abbeville, France, existed prehistoric stone tool tradition with bifacial (hand axe) technology.
History of Treachery in India
Tryst with treachery in India is rather ancient. However at first, I will refer to two namely Jaichand and Mir Jafar. Have you ever met any person in India with identical name? No and never. Their treacherous conduct is too well known. However one name is not so notorious. He is Gulab Singh. People do name Gulab but reason is that his treachery is not too well known.
Jaichand is also spelled as Jai Chandra and has a wiki page devoted to him here. According to this page the betrayal of Jaichand is fictional. As if history is not fictional. As per another wiki page, Jaichand was king of Kannouj and there was no Prithviraj Chouhan.
As regards Mir Jafar, it is too recent to falsify. He is a character which is also part of French History. Mir Jafar, was the commander in the army of Nawab of Bengal Siraj-Ud-Daulah. He betrayed Siraj ud-Daulah to become the next Nawab. Thus after helping the British defeat Siraj ud-Daulah he became the new Nawab of Bengal in 1757 with military support from the British East India Company as a reward for his betrayal. Wiki page on Mir Jafar affirms this. Continue reading
Supremacist conflict or paranoia.
Death to kafir is the massage to every single person who does not follow Islam is in “kufr” or ” Sin”. Those folloing Islam are superior people if not race. Democratically elected Govt. cannot determine what is right or wrong. The correct word in Persian is Halal & Haram which can only be deterrmined by Allah. The last sentence is a near reproduction of the words used by ISIS or Daesh* commander in an interview. Thus the only option for non-Islamic people or not following correct version of Islam is but to convert to Wahabi-Sunni-Islam or die.
Are all the above expressions exaggerated.?
Is it a paranoid version of a Non-Islamic person?
Unfortunately the above stanza is buildup with the word spoken, written, conveyed or preached by Terrorists, Leaders and Preachers. Continue reading
India is undergoing a delicate phase in History. There is a section (RSS) which claims that it is first Hindu Government after 800 years and there is opposition (read Gandhi family) who agrees with it and asserts that the present BJP/Modi Government is Hindu fundamentalist Govt. See what an agreement. Left of the center party is agreeing with RSS a rightist organisation. This is rather an anti- polarisation. Everyone is agreeing but BJP in power is pleading for tolerance and not taking any position at all. But it would not be that way for long.
However whatever may be the stupor of politicians, the polarisation is in every society. it may be in different stages but process of integration and polarisation is a an integrated one. And it is a fact not a metaphor. However here the discussion is about polarisation or division of society on religious lines more so between Hindu and Muslim.
What is polarisation?
A personal experience would explain it. About two decades back I represented a complainant before disciplinary committee of Bar Council of Delhi. The defendant was a Muslim lawyer. Allegation was misbehaviour on the part of lawyer outside the court which would not be suitable as per professional etiquette and ethics.
Nehru family: Who are they and upto what?
Last election saw the that ruling Congress Party, a Nehru Family governed (or owned?) political party, though polled 19% votes got less than 10% seats in Parliamentary Elections 2014. While the proprietors of the Party i.e. Nehru Family (now using different surnames) are looking into the causes of such massive loss, I landed on a page about Nehru Family here.
Nehru family five generation back:
The story dates back to 1857. The unsuccessful attempt by Indians to over throw the Imperial Government was over and British soldiers were repressing and killing the Mughal Officers. To escape, one Mughal kotwal (Chief of Police or present day Police Commissioner) along with his family escaped to Agra. Of course on foot and horses or bullock carts as there were no planes or trains at that time. Continue reading