Defeat is an Orphan: How Pakistan Lost the Great South Asian War

I recently concluded reading the book titled:

Defeat is an Orphan: How Pakistan Lost the Great South Asian War.

It is a succinct summary of Pakistan and it’s activities including it’s obsession with India. Written from a western perspective, it is particularly interesting as it eschews the wars before 1998 and starts with Kandahar hijacking. It has details of myths created by Pakistan around its various misadventures. A must read for any one interested in the subject. An excerpts about effect of ending of cold was and disintegration of USSR:

“While India had become more pragmatic and outward-looking, Pakistan had become more ideological and isolated. Pakistan had misread the collapse of the Soviet Union as having been caused by the anti-Soviet jihad in Afghanistan and evidence of the benefits of Islamist proxies. Unable to see beyond its immediate neighbourhood, it disregarded the many other causes of the collapse—the Soviet Union had been rotting from within for decades for reasons quite independent of Afghanistan. Pakistan’s backing for the Taliban and Pakistan-based groups fighting in Kashmir through the 1990s had also deepened its well of support for Islamist militancy. It increasingly presented itself as a champion of Muslims worldwide, defining the defence of everyone from Kashmiris to Palestinians as a matter of national interest. Saddam Hussein, whose 1990 invasion of Kuwait had been defeated by a US-led coalition, was seen as a hero.”

Another excerpt about recent surgical strikes by India on terrorist camp inside POK:

“Shortly before calling the media to the news conference, the foreign ministry circulated—via the same WhatsApp group—a White House statement on an overnight phone call between Indian National Security Adviser Ajit Doval and his US counterpart Susan Rice. Condemning the Uri attack as “cross-border terrorism”; the Americans reiterated US demands that Pakistan take action against the Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed and reaffirmed “the robust US-India partnership”. It was one of the strongest official statements in favour of India ever from Washington, which for years had tried to balance pressure on Pakistan over its support for Islamist militants with quiet diplomacy to nudge Delhi on Kashmir. Notably it made no mention of Kashmir; nor called for India and Pakistan dialogue. The entire onus was on Pakistan to disarm its jihadi proxies. The US statement set India up well for the announcement at the media briefing, where the main speaker was, unusually, the Indian Army’s Director-General of Military Operations (DGMO). In an overnight operation, Lt-General Ranbir Singh said, the Indian Army had conducted “surgical strikes” against Pakistan-backed militants preparing to infiltrate into Indian Kashmir. These strikes on launch-pads along the LoC had inflicted “significant casualties”. India had no plans for further military operations, he added, and had already contacted the Pakistan Army to inform it formally of its action. The DGMO read his statement in English and Hindi, took no questions and saluted the media on his way out. Other military officials were on hand to tell journalists the Indian Army had crossed the LoC in several different places to target would-be infiltrators. For the first time since 1971, India had announced military action across the LoC.”

Generally concluding Para is a mystery in a fiction but in a non-fiction; it can entice interest. One may read the book as to how the author, namely Myra Macdonald, reached to following conclusion: Continue reading

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Nehru’s Foreign Policy and Yuri Nasenko

Plagiarizing PhD from an old Book

Sterling Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi published a book in 1977 titled Jawaharlal Nehru and India’s Foreign Policy. It is authored by Yuri Nasenko. An ebook of the book is available at archive.org.

But then I came across a new website of Govt. of India as part of digital India program where all the research papers submitted to the Universities are uploaded. And here came a surprise. The most famous thesis in google search is plagiarized version from above book of Yuri Nasenko. This thesis is here.

The reference link is : http://hdl.handle.net/10603/107119

Thus Shri Nagendra Varthe under the guidance of  Mallikarjuna K. Reddy at Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantpur received doctorate in 2015 in the subject of History by extensively plagiarizing from above book. The Guide was busy with something other than history. Such a pathetic attitude.

All the best.

But what is the point of creating shodhganga when there is no place for feed back? The Governments in India work so slow that it always behind a decades of expectation. Hope some day it will introduce the feedback feature, to check plagiarizing.

 

Requiem to Atal Bihari Vajpayee former Prime Minister of India

An ode to a modest hero:

Atal Bihari Vajpayee (25 Decemeber 1924 to 16 August 2018)

Atal Bihari Vajpayee founded Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) in 1980 and in 1984 BJP had just two members in Parliament. He was severely punished in 1980 and 1984 by public for joining/merging his older party Jan Sangh with Janta Party in 1977.

An orator at par, a poet, a statesman who was never afraid to pause in conversation and a person who loved good food will always be remembered for his affable nature.

Eventually in 1996 he became Prime Minister of India for 13 days. After fresh polls in 1998 he became Prime Minister for 11 months after which his Government fell for just one vote. In 1999 itself fresh polls were held and Atalji became Prime Minister for the third time till 2004. He was conferred India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee in 2015

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84 Ancient Civilizations in the World

The cradles of Civilizations

Though all cradles did not fructify into large cities yet the effort was made by humans at various places.

The cities, as we know, came into being only 5000 years back i.e. around 3000 BCE, as far as our discovery of ancient cities is so far made. Small settlements with or without buried corpses of earlier time period show that human civilization existed for far longer period and only thereafter developed enough technology to build big cities.

Small settlements are mostly from stone age and the cities show signs of metallurgical knowledge which was called as copper age. The places where human settlements of stone age were found are called cradles of civilisation for here human civilisation was in nascent stage from which it grew up later to adolescence age or copper age.

It may be noted that there are 84 ancient settlements of civilisations are listed in Encyclopedia Britannica. These are:

Abbevillian industry:

700,00 years settlement discovered in old lower Somme valley, in a suburb of Abbeville, France, existed prehistoric stone tool tradition with bifacial (hand axe) technology.

Acheulean industry:

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